Dosing of cephalosporines in renal failure pateints - Research Proposal Example Aim- To understand the dosing of Cephalosporin in Renal failure patients. Method and Design Physical examination- should be performed for edema, ascites, dehydration. Measurement of body weight and height is performed. In obese patients the ideal body weight should be calculated and dose of drug should be planned consequently. Renal function- Estimation of creatine clearance (the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine in a unit time). Elimination of drugs is directly proportional to GFR (drugs excreted by kidneys). The Cockroft- Gault equation to estimate Clcr for age between 40- 80 years. Clcr (mL/min) = (140-age)x weight in kgs / 72 x serum creatinine (in mg/ dL) x (0.85 for women). Assessment of GFR from serum creatinine level presumes the stability of renal function and also formulate that serum creatinine measurement is constant. If there is alteration in renal function, the creatinine level does not indicate the true clearance. In case of oliguria, Clcr is approximated as 10mL/min. In cases with acute renal failure, the non-renal clearance of medicines diminishes by means of time window of renal failure. In the initial course of the therapy, personalized pharmacokinetic dose for patients with severe renal impairment is vital.
Comparison And Contrast Between Achilles And Hector History Essay Homers poem The Iliad is an epic poem that describes the majority of the war between Greek and Trojan. The purpose of this essay is to enhance our critical reading and writing skills. The mean of this is essay is compare and contrast between Achilles and Hector discussing the similarities between two protagonists of the poem the Iliad. I think its important to be sure that we have a complete understanding of the things being compared because it will be much easier to write a critical essay. The poem was written by Homer who is generally considered being one of the most important poets and authors of the eighth century. Also, Homer has had an enormous influence on the history of literature and he has a particular form of writing. To my understanding, He had the ability to perceive life in a different way because he wrote most about of the life in Greek and war their respective times. The poem the Iliad is very important and interesting because He teaches many good things about the life of one person during the war. The main protagonists of the Poem are Achilles who is considered as the greatest warrior in the world. Achilles is the son of Peleus, the former king of the Myrmidons, and a sea nymph named Thetis. Patroclus is Greek warrior and beloved companion of Achilles. Menelaus is King of Sparta and brother of Agamemnon and he is who his wife, Helen, was taken by prince Paris Trojan, After, was like that the Greeks declared war on Troy. Agamemnon is Commander of the Greek armies and son of Atreus, the king of Mycenae. Hector is prince of Trojan and revered the bravest of the Trojan warriors. Priam is King of Troy. Andromache is noble and dedicated wife from Hectors. Paris is Prince Trojan and who took Helen from Menelaus. Zeus is King of the gods, who prefers to remain neutral in the war but he intervenes after a plea for help. Hera is Queen of the gods, who favors the Greeks. Apollo is revered like a god of light and the sun, who sides with the Trojans. Thetis is known as the goddess of water, who is the mother of Achilles. Although exist many most protagonist but to me them are most important. (Harold Bloom) According to Egbert Haverkamp Begemann , Homer was a writer; whose writing manifests of the wars between Greek and Trojan. The Iliad, the subject is war. The Greek army has traveled to Troy to battle the Trojan army by the recused Menelaus wife Helen from Paris , resulting in a war that rages on for the better part of a ten year. To me the three most important and relevant protagonist of the Iliad is Achilles, Hector and Patroclus. Achilles fights for the Greek army and is considered the greatest of the Greek warriors. Patroclus is the most loyal commander from Achilles and considered like brother of war of the great Achilles. While Hector, who fights for the Trojan army, he is not only a prince of Troy is also considered the greatest of the Trojan warriors. Achilles and Hector are most important characters in the Iliad because they are respected and revered as heroes by all people of their side. They are different by the way that they had relationships with their families, the way that they lead their troops in the Iliad in the way that they view and interact with the power of the gods. The first contrast between Achilles and Hector is that they have different personalities and how they live their life. Hector is a man of family who loves his child and wife and he believed that Confidence, communication is important to build a good relationship with respect and love to keep the family. Also, he can forget war when a little child cries or his people suffer by the war. Whiles Achilles is ruled by his uncontrollable passions as seen in his rage and proud headstrong ways and to Achilles is evident that military glory is more important than family life. He risks his life in order to gain military glory. According, The Iliad is a poem that shown Achilles has a great love to his mother and his close friendship with Patroclus and Briseis. Achilles is a man who comes to live by and for violence (Lawall 115). Achilles was like that because he was grown with this Greek culture where always were in wars. Also, Achilles never see his lasting life was not in his future because he always was presented in all wars that the Greek have by pride and gain glory. Also, He is willing to sacrifice his life only so that his name will be remembered. For Hector, war is a necessary evil in which he fights bravely, but reluctantly (Lawall 115). While Achilles participating or fighting in wars by pride, glory and to have his name remembered, Hectors motivation is more humanistic. A great example by that Hector is considered one hero between the Trojans is because he fighting against the Achaeans is all about preventing well-being and keeps peaceful in his land. Furthermore, hector have pride but different to pride of Achilles because his pride is subdued in order to maintain his loyalty to his homeland and its people. Hectors loyalty is evident in the Iliad. Another important contrast between the characters principals of the Iliad has different ways of showing heroism. Hector is a hero in his own way. Although he died in a very dreadful way, the Trojans all celebrated him as a great hero of their time because He fought by people of his land and peace. While Achilles were possibly the most important warrior and hero of Greek time. Although, The Greeks treat Patroclus as a hero after his death, He was given a great celebration in his honor because Patroclus death is the most important influenced to that Achilles participating in the war against Trojan and so they could win the war. To me understand a great similiratlity between Achilles and hector according to Iliad, Achilles loves Briseis and Agamemnon rips her from him, without remorse. After the great Achilles doesnt believe that he should fight in it war because he was directly insulted to his pride like man when Agamemnon demanded to the love of his life Briseis. He was fury to refuse to fight against the Trojans by the fail of respect of Agamemnon to him. According the Iliad, Hectors love for his family is shown when he is shown playing with his infant son before he goes out to meet his death at the hands of Achilles. To me understand is one great example love and passion that the family has in the life of hector. Another similarity is when Achilles feeling guilty for the death of Patroclus and other Acadians who had died by the pride and choice of refused to participating in the war after the great offend by part Agamemnon. In addition, Achilles realized the consequences of his actions and He was sorry for what he had done and wanted to fix it. Then is when Achilles feels that if he kills Hector, Patroclus death will be justly avenged and he will not carry by his actions. Hector values honor and pride in his army and homeland more than he values life. For example, when he advises the citizens of Troy to sleep outside the city gates, because he assumes all is safe and then finds out people were murdered through the night because by the raging Achilles had returned, he assumes full responsibility for the disaster. If the situation had been reversed, Achilles would have pointed fingers of blame at others, but on the contrary, Hector knew that he had made a mistake and was to ashamed to return inside the gates, instead giving his live attempting the end that of the man who viciously killed so many Trojans. (Harold Bloom) this quote is important to understand the personality, values that the great hector have, courage and honor required to be recognized like a true epic hero. Hector demonstrates every quality an epic hero should. He combines his fighting abilities with integrity, humanity, and an entirely altruistic approach to every situation he faces. He honestly lives to fairly fight his best every day for the Trojans.